Threats to humanity, and how we address them, define our time. "But we have also changed the world in ways that offer protection. We have a healthier population; improved sanitation and hygiene; preventative and curative medicine; and a scientific understanding of disease. Perhaps most importantly, we have public health bodies to facilitate global communication and coordination in the face of new outbreaks." Toby Ord, writing in the Guardian, explores the formation of pandemics in the modern age.